Table I. Salamanders are in the order Caudata. Cryptobranchi-dae includes hellbenders (Cryptobranchus sp.) Careers | About Us. ADH increases apical Na+-K+-2Cl− entry in mouse medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle. This is known as autotomy; the lost tail will regenerate (Stebbins & Cohen 1995). 1, for each Na+ transported through the cell—and requiring utilization of ATP—one Na+ is transported through the paracellular pathway without any additional expenditure of energy. It would be interesting to know what the thyroid enzymic activity prevalent in poikilotherms is and how it varies with age, season, salinity temperature, etc. J Membr Biol 1984;80:201–219; Molony DA, Reeves WB, Hebert SC, Andreoli TE. BALLSf School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, England SUMMARY Fragments of liver from the adult urodel Amphiumae means, the Congo eel, were maintained in organ cultur foer up to 70 … Characteristics: Species of Amphiuma are heavy-bodied, eel-like salamanders with four tiny, weakly developed limbs (Fig. There are approximately 400 species in Caudata, divided into three groups: sirens (eel-like amphibians), primitive salamanders (hellbenders and other related species), and advanced salamanders (mudpuppies, Mouse thick ascending limb of Henle (mTALH) cells. A final curious feature of the TAL is that this segment is a “hybrid epithelium” possessing a very low permeability to water, yet a high ionic conductance (Table 2). In addition to electrodiffusive efflux of Cl− across the basolateral membrane, a component of electroneutral KCl cotransport has been proposed in some species (164). TABLE 3. FIGURE 16.15. Salamander (Amphiuma) Liver. Liver (Amphiuma) STUDY. Unfortunately, the intracellular activities of all three of these ions have not been determined in the mammalian TAL (Table 4). Rocha and Kokko (412) and Burg and Green (56) first demonstrated the salient characteristics of salt absorption in rabbit medullary and cortical TAL segments, respectively. Note: Values of JCl for rat were calculated assuming an inner tubule diameter of 20 μm. 4. Of these, Bufonidae, Dendrobatidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, and Ranidae have species that can be encountered in a research environment. (198, 200), and subsequently Hebert (195) demonstrated that the apical cell membrane constitutes the major barrier to transcellular water flow in this segment. Amphiuma is a genus of aquatic salamanders that have very small limbs and are sometimes misidentified as snakes or eels. Eel CT decreases calcium influx in aquatic axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) as it does in fishes. As will be discussed below, the evidence for KCl cotransport is strongest in the low basolateral conductance cells of the Amphiuma diluting segment (175, 177). Ambystoma tigrinum, the tiger salamander, is a native North American species used in research. Ranids are medium to large frogs with smooth skin. Additionally, they may be brightly colored, an advertisement of their toxicity. amphiuma liver cell? Am J Physiol 1973;224:659–668; Friedman PA, Andreoli TE. The former two species are large salamanders with adult length exceeding 1 meter TL, whereas the latter species is considerably smaller, <300 mm TL. 1.9) typically have four limbs, though the hindlimbs are greatly reduced in the mud eels (Amphiuma spp.) In addition to the C cells, the ultimobranchial gland of the apodan Chthonerpeton indistinctum contains cholinergic and purinergic neuronal endings. David O. Norris Ph.D., James A. Carr Ph.D., in Vertebrate Endocrinology (Fifth Edition), 2013. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Indeed, members of the genus, which may grow up to three feet long, are often better known by the name Congo eel or Congo snake. Second, the transport of Cl− under these circumstances occurred against both electrical and chemical gradients and hence involved an active transport process; however, the nature of the active process was not specified at that time. Fertilization is internal; adult females have spermathecae in the cloaca, and adult males possess five sets of cloacal glands, of which the posteriormost set has a unique morphology and histology. Mudpuppies are aquatic and are found in east and central North America. Relevance. Data from Burg MB, Green N. Function of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. in liver, scattered throughout, big and black. Content: One genus, Amphiuma, with 3 species. 1 Answer. The ranges in haploid genome sizes (“C-values” in picograms, pg) so far reported in different groups of organisms, showing that genome size is clearly unrelated to intuitive notions of organismal complexity. TABLE 16. Since the paracellular pathway is cation-selective (PNa/PCl = 2–6), the majority of the current through the paracellular pathway is carried by sodium moving from the lumen to the interstitium. In mouse mTAL, for example, the rate of K+ secretion amounts to about 10% of the rate of net Cl− absorption (203).
2020 amphiuma liver cell