Mark Edward Lender and Garry Wheeler Stone, Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Valley Forge Military Academy and College, "Timeline of the American Revolution 1763 - 1783", "Chapter Six: Historical Accuracy vs Good Taste: Valley Forge on the old 1920s and 1930s - Valley Forge National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)", "The Battle of Valley Forge - Journal of the American Revolution", "The British Campaign for Philadelphia and the Occupation of Valley Forge in 1777", "Washington's Generals and the Decision to Quarter at Valley Forge - The Washington Papers", "Founders Online: General Orders, 20 December 1777", "Founders Online: From George Washington to Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski, 3 …", "Founders Online: General Orders, 18 December 1777", "Founders Online: From George Washington to Henry Laurens, 23 December 1777", "Founders Online: General Orders, 27 May 1778", "Founders Online: General Orders, 4 August 1777", "The Women Present at Valley Forge - Valley Forge National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)", "American Indians and the American Revolution", "Founders Online: To George Washington from Henry Laurens, 27 January 1778", "Revolutionary War Sites in Manalapan, New Jersey", "Overview of Valley Forge History and Significance", "Continental Army Winter Encampments: Morristown, New Jersey and vicinity", Buchanan, 2004, The Road to Valley Forge: How Washington Built the Army that Won the Revolution, Ellis, 2005, His Excellency: George Washington, Pictures of Valley Forge National Historical Park, 1788–89 United States presidential election, Samuel Osgood House, First Presidential Mansion, Alexander Macomb House, Second Presidential Mansion, General George Washington Resigning His Commission, Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route, Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness, Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, African Americans in the Revolutionary War, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, List of places named for the Marquis de Lafayette,, Buildings and structures in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Battles of the American Revolutionary War in Pennsylvania, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 19:09. A precursor to vaccination (introduced by Edward Jenner in 1798), inoculation gave the patient a milder form of smallpox with better recovery rates than if the patient had acquired the disease naturally. , No Comment, December 21, 2017 Valley Forge marked the first time Washington ordered the army primarily concentrated into a more permanent post where they constructed their own shelters. [26] In practice, however, the army could not reliably supply the full ration. It was inportant because after the hardships of Valley Forge, the American army was stronger, prouder, and better trained. In total, about 1,700-2,000 troops died during the Valley Forge encampment, mostly at general hospitals located in six different towns. "[34] Washington and his aides convinced them to implement recommended reforms to the supply department. Under Steuben's leadership, the Continentals practiced volley fire, improved maneuverability, standardized their march paces, exercised skirmishing operations, and drilled bayonet proficiency. [56] These new efforts to train and discipline the army also improved morale among the soldiers more generally.[57]. "[16], The Valley Forge encampment became the Continental Army's first large-scale construction of living quarters. Washington continued with a dire warning to Congress: "unless some great and capital change suddenly takes place in that line, this Army must inevitably be reduced to one or other of these three things, Starve, dissolve, or disperse, in order to obtain subsistence in the best manner they can. [14] In addition to a concentration of soldiers at Valley Forge, Washington ordered nearly 2,000 soldiers to encamp at Wilmington, Delaware. Many soldiers and commanders hailed from German-speaking communities, as with Pennsylvania-born Brigadier General Peter Muhlenberg. Despite the mortality rate, Washington did curb the spread of smallpox, which had plagued the Continental Army since the American Revolution had begun in 1775. Increasing military efficiency, morale, and discipline improved the army's well-being with better supply of food and arms. "[28] Resentment swelled within the ranks towards those deemed responsible for their hardship. The encampment was primarily situated along the high, flat ground east of Mount Joy and south of the Schuylkill River. [32], The outlook for the army's situation improved when a five-man congressional delegation arrived on January 24. , Jecinta Morgan Valley Forge is located in Pennsylvania. Washington first asked his generals where to quarter the Continental Army in the winter of 1777–1778 on October 29, 1777. Why Valley Forge Is More Important than Ever This Year News at Home . Other rations became lost or captured by the enemy. On May 6, having already received word of the French Alliance, Washington ordered the Continental Army to perform a Grand Feu de Joie, a formal ceremony consisting of a rapid and sequential firing of guns down the ranks. For other uses, see. Amputations occurred, but no corroborating sources state that death occurred from the freezing temperatures alone. The encampment ran for six long months over the winter of 1777 to 1778. , No Comment, January 6, 2018 , Dr. Howard Fields, No Comment, January 1, 2018 To fight against the cold winter, huts made of logs were built but these were not enough to protect them from acquiring diseases. As they marched through south and central New Jersey on their way to New York City, the British destroyed property and confiscated supplies and food, inspiring growing enmity among the area's civilians. It is in this site where the story of the encampment of the Continental Army of the newly formed United States of America under the command of General George Washington took place and made a historical mark in the history of America. However, support showed by the camp followers at Valley Forge and the families of the soldiers helped increased the soldiers’ determination, esteem and moral and motivated the them to go on. The British people were planning to capture the rebel capital, Philidelphia, in order to stop the war. Today, Valley Forge National Historical Park protects and preserves over 3,500 acres of the original encampment site.[4]. Stories of harsh weather likely originated from the 1779-1780 winter encampment at Jockey Hollow, near Morristown, New Jersey, which had the coldest winter of the war. Despite the dubious origins, many have repeated the story over the years. The Schuylkill River also thawed, allowing the Continental Army to more easily to transport convoys from the main supply depot at Reading. "[30], On January 7, Christopher Marshall related how "ten teams of oxen, fit for slaughtering, came into camp, driven by loyal Philadelphia women. Scabies broke out because of the filthy conditions within the encampment, as did other deadlier ailments. Yet he and his staff better supplied the troops at a time when the weather and road conditions began to improve. B. Trussell Jr. writes that many squads "dug their floors almost two feet below ground level," to reduce wind exposure or the number of logs required for construction. Join now. In January 1777, Washington had ordered mass inoculation of his troops, but a year later at Valley Forge, smallpox broke out again. Valley Forge is located in Pennsylvania. "[29] While Washington dealt with serious circumstances, he may have exaggerated slightly to obtain a quicker response from the Continental Congress. Continental officer George Ewing wrote that "the troops then shouted, three cheers and 'Long live the King of France!' By January 1778, nearly 10% of Washington's effective force consisted of African American troops. , Jecinta Morgan It is as simpla as that. He posted the army's mounted troops at Trenton, New Jersey, and additional outposts at Downingtown and Radnor, Pennsylvania, among other places. , Dr. Howard Fields, No Comment, January 4, 2018 [36][37] Neither plumbing nor a standardized system of trash collection existed. Washington once wrote that "the multitude of women in particular, especially those who are pregnant, or have children, are a clog upon every movement. Dead horse remains often lay unburied, and Washington found the smell of some places intolerable.
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